We saw Thor attempt something like that against Billy Batson in DC Versus Marvel
, with partial success. On the one hand, by throwing Mjolnir into the path of a Shazam bolt, he managed to prevent it from reaching Billy and transforming him back into Captain Marvel. On the other hand though, it appeared that his weather powers weren't fully compatible with the "otherworldly lightning", which caused Mjolnir to be "short-circuit[ed]" and displaced to another location, while Thor himself was floored and stunned by the backlash.
Also, while we've seen Billy use Shazam bolts as a weapon on a few occasions, I don't think Black Adam has done it as often, if ever. I have seen him charge his fists with lightning, but it's only the actual Shazam bolts called down from the sky that cause his transformation. So in practice, this doesn't seem like something that is very likely to happen, even if we give Thor the benefit of the doubt and assume he's capable of controlling Shazam bolts in theory.
BA also has powers of gods that he uses, so more then just a "mere mortal"
Now can Strange and fate affect the Shazam lighting?